The browser you are using is too old for our website. Please visit from Chrome and you will be able to browse normally.


      Pregnancy nutrition and baby immune system

      Pregnant Woman Cutting Apples

      Pregnancy nutrition and baby immune system


      Experts now believe that pregnancy diet is likely to influence an unborn baby’s developing immune system, and reduce the likelihood of allergic disease in childhood.In particular, vitamins A and D, folic acid and omega 3 have been linked to immune function and may help your baby to develop immunity and resilience that will stay with them for life.

      The link between immunity and allergy

      We’ve long understood the role of vitamins and minerals in infant development; we know that calcium is needed for healthy bone growth, iron is essential for brain development, and vitamin C helps skin and tissue to form. But scientists are now turning their attention to the link between pregnancy nutrition and infant immunity.

      Deficiencies of vitamins, minerals and fats in pregnancy have been linked to poor immune function in babies and children. Allergies are on the rise: over the past two decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has increased dramatically worldwide, particularly in the young.

      Thankfully, the more we understand about the baby immune system and the factors affecting it, the more we can do to strengthen immune function and resilience, and reduce the prevalence of allergies.


      Pregnancy food and immunity

      The Western diet – in which red meat, sugar, butter, vegetable oils, refined grains and processed foods feature heavily – has been linked to an increase in allergies among children. The Mediterranean diet, however – rich in fruits and vegetables and with less dairy and red meat – is associated with a reduced risk of allergy development.

      Specifically, it’s suggested that a healthy pregnancy diet with an increased intake of particular types of fish, fruit, vegetables and foods rich in omega-3 and vitamin D may reduce the risk of childhood allergies such as eczema, wheeze, asthma and allergy sensitivities.



      Nutrients to support baby immunity

      Vitamin D

      Evidence suggests that a lack of Vitamin D in pregnancy may be associated with the development of childhood asthma. Getting the right amount of vitamin D from natural sources can be difficult – it’s only available from a few foods and mostly produced in response to sunlight. That’s why pregnancy supplements contain vitamin D, and may be the most reliable source. Learn more about the role of vitamin D in pregnancy and how you can up your vitamin D intake.


      Vitamin A

      As well as supporting the development of your baby’s lungs, eyes and skin cells, vitamin A also contributes to the development of your baby’s immune system.But too much vitamin A can be harmful so you should avoid foods like pâté and liver. Instead, include foods which contain safe levels of vitamin A such as orange-coloured fruits and vegetables, dairy and eggs.



      Making sure your pregnancy diet includes omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) may help to reduce sensitisation to common food allergens in the first year of life. Oily fish such as mackerel and salmon are good sources of omega-3, but stick to 1-2 portions per week. If you’re thinking of taking a fish oil supplement instead, steer clear of cod liver oil as it contains high levels of vitamin A which can be harmful. Find out more about the many other benefits of omega-3 and how to get more omegas and LCPs into your diet.

      Folic acid

      You’re advised to take a folic acid supplement before you conceive and continue for 12 weeks into your pregnancy to reduce the risk of your baby developing neural tube defects (NTDs). But it would seem that folates do more than just prevent NTDs; recent research suggests that too little folate may interfere with normal immune function. Too much, however, has been associated with lower respiratory tract infections amongst children. This means that, although taking a folate supplement is worthwhile, there is such a thing as ‘too much’ folate. The recommended daily amount, and the amount present in most pregnancy supplements, is 400mcg. Discover why folic acid is important in pregnancy and see the foods that are folate-rich.


      Recent studies suggest that including peanuts and peanut butter in your pregnancy diet may well protect your baby from developing a peanut allergy whilst still in the womb. So unless you’re allergic to peanuts yourself, eating peanuts now might improve your baby’s resilience in future.

      Next steps

      • Learn more about what’s a considered a ’balanced’ pregnancy diet.
      • Include lots of fruit and vegetables, including orange-coloured veg like carrots, oranges and sweet potatoes.
      • Opt for lean white meat and oily fish over red meat
      • Avoid saturated fats, and instead eat omega-3-rich fats such as those found in oily fish, walnuts and flax seeds.
      • Stay up to date on the recommended pregnancy vitamins and minerals.

      Brighter futures start here

      Discover more about infant development to help shape your baby's future

      Join now for free

      Your baby's future health begins here

      Your baby's future health begins here

      At Aptaclub, we believe that experience helps to build resilience; that
      each new encounter, whether in pregnancy or after birth, can shape your
      baby’s future development. With our scientific expertise and one-to-one
      round the clock support, we can help you and your baby embrace tomorrow.

      Join Aptaclub

      Related articles

      Questions about feeding and nutrition?

      Our nutritionists and feeding advisors are always on hand to talk about feeding your baby. So if you have a question, just get in touch.

      Brighter futures start here

      Discover more about infant development to help shape your baby's future

      Join now for free

      Your privacy is important to us and therefore we would like to explain how we use cookies on this website. With your consent, we will use cookies to measure and analyse how our website is used (analytical cookies), to tailor it to your interests (personalisation cookies), and to show you relevant advertising and information (targeting cookies) we think you will like. For more information please read the cookie statement.

      Privacy Settings

      You can choose your preferences anytime for cookies and tracking. For more information please read our cookie policy.

      • Strictly necessary

        They are necessary for the website to function and cannot be switched off. They are usually only set in response to actions made by you which amount to a request for services (setting your privacy preferences, logging in, filling in forms, etc.). You can set your browser to block or alert you about these cookies, but some parts of the site will not then work.

      • Analytical cookies

        They allow us to count visits and traffic sources, to measure and improve the performance of our site. They show us which pages are the most and least popular and how visitors move around the site. If you do not allow these cookies we will not know when you have visited our site, and will not be able to monitor its performance.

      • Personalisation cookies

        They enable website’s enhanced functionality and personalization. They may be set by us or by third parties whose services we have added to our pages. If you do not allow these cookies, some or all of these services may not function properly.

      • Targeting cookies

        They may be set through our site by our advertising partners, to build a profile of your interests and to show you relevant adverts on other sites. They do not store directly personal information, but are based on uniquely identifying your browser and internet device. If you do not allow these cookies, you will experience less targeted advertising.